整合MEMS元件之RF CMOS 功率放大器

RF CMOS power amplifier Integrated with MEMS components

指導教授 : 黃榮堂、陳正光   研究生 : 李能嘉  機電整合研究所 92年


摘要

  隨著射頻通訊技術的發展,意謂著無線通訊元件於電路設計上必須更嚴謹及效能最佳化;在傳統通訊系統內之射頻電路,大多使用III、V族化合物,砷化鎵(GaAs)具有高效率、低損耗及低雜訊指數之高頻特性,以異質接面雙極電晶體(HBT)設計射頻功率放大器,可以有輸出功率29dBm及功率附加效率(PAE)45%,適合應用於高功率、遠距離無線通訊系統,但是,對於低功率、低移動率的通訊系統,矽-互補式金氧半導體(CMOS),將有效的降低成本,且在價格、積體化程度上遠超過砷化鎵,很幸運的,拜積體電路—『奈米CMOS』技術進步之賜,提高電晶體特性,以及『射頻微機電系統(RF-MEMs)』技術提升,改善集總元件特性,以目前商業研發之功率放大器,已從內建輸出/入匹配網路,延伸至內建峰值檢測器(Peak-detector)於晶片內,因此,本論文將採用TSMC與UMC提供之1P5M、1P6M CMOS標準製程,用以整合MEMS元件設計開發出一系列適用於低功率2.4GHz、5.2GHz無線通訊頻帶,具有功率控制、峰值檢測器及阻抗調整器之CMOS 功率放大器,提供溫度、製程及負載阻抗等偏移補償;整體PA設計使用Agilent’s ADS模擬分析、Springsoft’s Laker佈局、Mentor’s Calibre驗證,輸出功率可達到20dBm,功率附加效率PAE>35%,控制功率技術能使輸出功率改變範圍為20mW~91mW(11dBm~19.6dBm),阻抗調整器可調整負載範圍為;量測方式採用On-Wafer機台及FR4-PCB板測試,而整體晶片面積包含打線pad均小於1.1x1.1 mm2。

關鍵詞:射頻CMOS功率放大器、RF MEMs、1P5M、1P6M、功率控制、MEMs高變化率可變電容、阻抗調      整器、峰值檢測器、低功率無線通訊

ABSTRACT

  With the development of RF communication technology, wireless communication devices need being much more precise and efficient in circuit design. Conventional GaAs based devices are high efficiency, low loss and low noise in high frequency and commonly applied in RF circuit. The HBT RF power amplifiercould deliver power 29dBm and PAE 45%, is adequate for high power and long-distance wireless communication system. However, for low power and low move rate communication system, the CMOS technology will effectively reduce cost and exceed GaAs in integration. Fortunately, the progress of "Nano CMOS" technology enhances transistor characteristics and "RF-MEMs" technology ameliorate lumped element characteristics therefore current commercial developed power amplifiers have built in output / input matching network and include Peak-detector inside the same chip. The circuit proposed in this thesis integrating MEMs components with 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz RF CMOS power amplifier, were fabricated by standard TSMC 0.251P5M and UMC 0.181P6M CMOS process technology. The RF power amplifiers containthe power control, the peak detector and the impedance tuner to provide excursion compensation of temperature, process and load impedance. This circuit is simulated and analysed with Agilent's ADS, implemented layout with Springsoft's Laker, verified with Mentor's Calibre. This RF CMOS Power amplifier could deliver power 20dBm, PAE> 35% and power control technology could make delivered power change range from 20mW to 91mW (11dBm~19.6dBm). The impedance tuner has adjustable loading rangeand. The measurement adopts on-wafer machines and FR4-PCB test boards. The whole chip area containing bond-wire pads is less than 1.1x1.1 mm2.

Keywords:RF CMOS power amplifier, RF MEMs,1P5M,1P6M, Power control, High variable capacitance, Impedance      tuner, peak detector, Low power wireless communication