精密鑽石線切割機之研製

Design of a Precious Diamond Wire Cutting Machine

指導教授 : 黃榮堂    研究生 : 鄭宜昇  機電整合研究所 90年


摘要

  本論文旨在發展一種可切削非導電材料的工具機,其切削精度可媲美放電線切割機,此工具機是一種利用PC-BASED控制器的數控機器,用來切割一些預定的形狀,形狀可定義於單軸、X-Y雙軸或是多軸以上,該機器乃利用伺服馬達帶動鑽石線在Z軸方向運動或某一方向運動,達到切割的功能。此切割機的功能與放電線切割機相似,但還能切割非導電性材料。此切割機包括上、下兩導向輪組,安裝於工件的上、下端,包圍住鑽石線,恰能支撐鑽石線切割工件時所產生的各方向反力;並有自動張力調節機構,使得鑽石線在切削過程中,都能維持一定的張力大小。此外在工件上下裝有張力感測器,用以得知切削工件時切削力的大小,並藉以做閉迴路回授控制,調整拉線速度及工件進給速度。長期以來,用來做模具的材料大都是導電性材料,近年來非導電性材料:如陶瓷、複合材料被大量使用,但立刻面臨如何切削成所要形狀的難題。本論文所發展出來的理論及技術,若用於設計單軸工具機,可針對圓柱切割,如晶圓柱。若應用於設計雙軸或是多軸以上之工具機,則可切割更複雜之形狀。

ABSTRACT

  This study attempts to develop a kind of machine tools, which is able to cut nonconducting material. Its cutting precision shall be able to be compared with traveling-wire electrical discharge machining, but can also cut nonconducting materials. This machine tool is a kind of NC machine tool using PC-based controller, used to cut some projected shapes which can be defined on a single axis, X-Y dual axes or multiple axis. The said machine is to use one diamond wire loop with motion on direction of Z-axis or a certain direction, to attain the function of cutting. This cutting machine includes top and bottom wire guide pulley which are installed upper and lower the workpiece, surround the diamond wire, expect to be able to support the reaction force incurred during component cutting by the diamond wire. This machine also includes an auto wire tension control mechanism. While diamond wire saw is cutting, it could be able to maintain a constant wire tension. Thus, the wire could be kept as straight as possible and not to cause shifting from the feeding direction. Besides, a tension sensor is also installed over the roller, used to know the cutting force and reactions of a component so as to adjust the drawing speed and feed speed. For a long time, most of the material used to make a die is conductive material. In the recent yeas, such nonconducting materials as ceramics and composites have also been massively applied, however a difficult issue of how to cut into the desire shape is encountered. The theory and technology developed in this study, if applied to design a single-axis machine tool, can focus on column slicing, such as a silicon wafer. If applied to design a machine tool of dual axes or multiple axis, it can cut a more complicated shape.